Building materials are the substances used for construction purposes, like materials for building a house.
The use of a wide variety of building construction materials has already been included in any Construction project since ancient times. Early Egyptians and Greeks used limestone, and gypsum as one of their make Construction materials. The major breakthrough within the building materials came, in the early 18th century, with the invention of Portland Cement by Joseph Aspdin, a Leeds builder and bricklayer. It is followed by the introduction of a wide range of materials to be used as a building material.
Due to the rapid technological up-gradation within the out Construction industry, the range of the building materials has been spread even wider, and as time will pass on, we are likely to see even more types of building materials to be introduced within our Construction industry.
Selection of Building Materials
As already stated earlier, there is a wide range of Building Materials, used in any building construction. Now the types of Building Materials, that should be chosen, are controlled by some external factors, some of which has been mentioned below-
- Aesthetic View of the Building
- Financial capacity of the Owner
- Different topographical features
- Type and Shape of the building
- Subsoil condition of the building, where it is to be Constructed.
- Environmental Conditions.
For the construction of two similar buildings, with almost same acquired land and a same number of stories, in the same topographical area, the Financial capacity of the owner, and the aesthetic view becomes one of the most important controlling factors, in deciding the type of building materials to be used. Naturally, we don’t usually see, two exactly similar building, exactly beside each other (except in the case of staff quarters).
Types of Building Materials
Following are the type of the most common building materials, which are a popular choice in any building construction, along with their Advantages and Disadvantages of using it.
Stones are very popular building materials, as they got adequate drainage capacity. So in the place of high rainfall region, the stones can be conveniently used as a construction material. Stones are generally a Non-metallic mineral matter, which is cut pieces of rock, which are the hard material on Earth’s crust being exposed over the surface or under the soil.
Stones can be broadly classified into two categories, they are—
Natural stones are obtained by cutting pieces directly from the rocks, which are formed in the earth’s Crust by the geological action of different external factors. Again the type of rocks and source from which the rocks have been formed are different, and so, the quality, hardness and other different factors of the stones formed from these rocks, differ.
The process by which the natural Stones are obtained from the rocks are known as Quarrying, and the place where the stones are extracted from the rocks are known as Quarry. After quarrying, the stones are cut into different sizes and given suitable finishes. This method is known as dressing, which is primarily done at the quarry site, and later to the shops.
There are many different types of dressing a stone, such as:
- Hammer face: Can be attained by simply knocking out the sharp edges
- Chisel Drafted: It is attained by making a wide margin around the face of the block
- Boasted Finish
- Reticulated Finish
- Plain Finish and Polished Finish
- Sand Blasting, etc
Artificial or Cast Stones:
Artificial Stones are those, which are artificially cast with other Construction materials(usually Concrete) and are used in the construction site. These stones are generally Prefabricated, and it offers excellent progress to Construction activity, as their size is large. The mortar requirement for using artificial stones are also very less. There are mainly two types of Artificial Stones used, which are—
- Solid Concrete block (400×200×150)
- Hollow Concrete block (400×200×190)
The minimum strength requirements for this type of blocks are 4Mpa. They are being manufactured by a lean mix of concrete having the size of aggregate less than 12mm.
Advantages of Stones
- One of the biggest Advantage of using stones as building materials are that the stones possess adequate drainage property, so it is widely used on high rainfall region.
- Stones, through dressing, can give attractive finishes as well as smoothness on the surface. Also, the types of dressings differ, so a wide range of attractive finishes can be attained by using stone.
- It is very evenly coloured, easy to shape and the texture improves with time.
Disadvantages of Stones
- They are suspectable to moisture damage.
They are very costly to Construct, and giving suitable finishes costs even more as well as this process is time-consuming.
Bricks are the most common types of building materials used mostly in any residential construction. Bricks are the small blocks of burnt or sun-dried clay, commonly used for building walls. Bricks are being used since ancient times, from Indus Valley Civilisation, about 5000 years ago.
The ingredients which are used for the Manufacture of clay bricks are Silica, Alumina, Magnesia, Iron Oxide, Lime. The composition of Lime and Magnesia is accurately controlled in the manufacture, as these two materials cause unsoundness in bricks. The standard size of Bricks is 190×90×90mm for Bricks without Mortar and 200×100×100mm with Mortar. Although there are many places where bricks of Traditional Sizes(230×110×75mm) are being used.
There are three types of bricks used, depending upon the type of construction, those are—
Refractory or Fire clay Bricks
The refractory or fire clay bricks are used to withstand high temperature up to 1300°C. These types of bricks are mainly used in lining furnaces, where withstanding high temperatures are of prime importance.
These bricks are light in weight and provide good thermal insulation. They are generally employed for constructing walls and partitions. The faces of the bricks can be smoothened or keyed for plastering.
Fly Ash is the waste product obtained from the burning of coal or lignite in various industries. Clay, when mixed with fly ash and lime, improves the overall properties of the bricks, and as well the fly ash is being adequately utilised without posing a threat to environmental pollution.
Advantages of Bricks
- Bricks are energy efficient.
- They need low maintenance and they are weatherproof
- Bricks are sustainable.
Disadvantages of Bricks
- They do not give an attractive finish to the surface
- Bricks are not as strong and durable like a stone as a building material.
- Bricks absorb water, which in later results in Dampness.
Also Read: Manufacturing of Bricks
Mortar is an intimate mixture of inert cementing material, fine aggregate and water uniformly mixed together in a certain proportion. They are widely used in Masonry Construction and plastering surfaces. Cementing material used are mud, lime, cement or a combination of those. Depending upon the proportion of Cement and sand, they are used for various purposes,–
- For Masonry Construction- 1:6-1:8
- Plastering Masonry- 1:3-1:4
- Plastering Concrete- 1:3
- For pointing works- 1:2-1:3
Mortar can be classified into three categories, they are—
Clay is suitable for making mud Mortar. Sometimes, fibrous materials such as cow dung are added to the mix to prevent cracking in the mortar. They are very cheap, but their durability is less as compared to lime mortar and cement mortar.
It is one of the oldest types of mortar, used widely in ancient Construction. Generally, Fat lime or hydraulic lime is used for making this type of mortar. Fat lime is suitable for plastering, while hydraulic lime is suitable for Masonry Construction.
This type of mortar is widely used in most of the projects. Cement mortar provides a number of advantages over like and mud Mortar such as it gives pointed joints to the Masonry, as well as provides a smooth and attractive finish to the surface.
Advantages of Mortar
- Mortars are excellent Binder, and they possess good bonding strength
- They give attractive finishes to the exposed surface.
- Cement mortars possess Excellent compressive strength.
Disadvantages of Mortar
The main disadvantages of mortar are that it possesses low tensile strength, shrinkage by drying and they possess low chemical resistance.
Timber is the moistureless wood. They are widely used as building materials, and they provide very attractive appearances when used. Some examples of timber are teak, deodar, sal, etc, and their demand is very high in India.
Some of the materials which are made by timber are as follows—
- Plywood: Made by thin layers of wood.
Advantages of Timber
- They have good insulation properties
- Their aesthetic appeal can be enhanced
Disadvantages of Timber
- They are not shock absorbent and Vibration resistant.
- They are not fire-resistant.
There are a wide variety of miscellaneous materials, such as,
- Galvanized Iron
- Asphalt and bitumen
- PVC, CPVC, etc.
These are some building materials, used for building construction and for other various purposes. There are many more building materials are currently in existence, within which I’ve included the popular and widely used ones. We can hope, as the I’m passes and Technology moves forward, many more building materials will get introduced, which will result in to, Architectural appeal as well as Structural integrity purposes.